Turkey is a paradise of sun, sea, mountains, and lakes that offers the vacationer a complete change from the stress and routine of everyday life. From April to October, most places in Turkey have an ideal climate that is perfect for relaxing on sandy beaches or enjoying the tranquility of mountains and lakes. Turkey also has a magnificent past, and is a land full of historic treasures from 13 successive civilizations spanning 10,000 years. Even if you spend only a short time in Turkey, you see a lot of this great past. 

There is no doubt that one visit will not be enough, and you will want to come back again and again as you discover one extraordinary place after another. All of them, no matter how different, have one thing in common: the friendly and hospitable people of this unique country.


Turkey is 814,578 sq km in area. The European and Asian regions are separated by the Straits of Istanbul. (Bosphorus), The Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. Anatolia is a high plateau rising progressively towards the east, broken up by the valleys of about 15 rivers, including The Dicle (Tigris) and The Firat ( Euphrates ). There are numerous lakes and some as Lake Van, are as large as inland sea. In the north, the mountains along the eastern Black sea coast run parallel to the sea; in the south , the Taurus mountains sweep down almost to the narrow, fertile coast plain. Turkey enjoys a variety of climates, ranging from the temperate climate of the Black sea region, to the continental climate of the interior, then, to the Mediterranean climate of the Aegean and Mediterranean coastal regions. The coastline touching the four seas that border the country is 8333 km in length.


Most Turkish museums are open everyday of the week, except Mondays. Palaces are also closed only on Mondays. The famous Topkapi Palace is closed on Tuesdays instead of Mondays. In order to receive permission for photos or films in museums or at ancient ruins, a fee , which varies according to the entrance fee, is charged. The photographing or filming, for commercial use, of yet unpublished which are copyrighted, requires a special permit from the General Directorate of Antiquities and museums. In Ankara most museums are closed on the first day of religious holidays.  


Turkish Mythology; reflect original Turkish myths which had occurred in Central Asia, the historical and legendary homeland of Turks. One of the Turkish tribes in Central Asia, Oghuz Tribe, had migrated farther west than most of the Turkish Tribes to become eventually the backbone of Turks of today's Turkey. 

"The Book of Dede Korkut" is an epic of the Oghuz. Both Seljuks and the Ottomans were descendants of the Oghuz. Their epic, constitutes one of the most important literary and historical documents from the world of the Middle Ages. "The Book of Dede Korkut" comprises a Prologue and twelve legends. From beginning to end they sing the praises of the Oghuz people, their nomadic way of life, their customs, and their values. As with other heroic literature, these stories are action- centered, most of them revolving around hunting expeditions, battles with the infidels and among the Oghuz themselves, pursuit, captivity, escape, and revenge. The twelve units share the same cast of characters, one of whom is the author himself, Dede Korkut. Strange and incredible when we first approach it, the world of this epic is thus so convincing rendered that our disbelief is gradually suspended for a poetic faith in its reality. 


Istanbul Byzantion, Byzantium, Constantinople
Ankara Ankyra, Angora, Ankura
Antakya Antiochia, Antioch
Serik Aspendos
Antalya Attalia
Efes Ephasos, Ephesus
Bodrum Halikarnassos
Pamukkale Hierapolis
Konya Skonion, Claudiconium, Ikonium
Değirmendere Klaros, Kolophon
Denizli Laodikca
Milas Mylasa
Izmir Smyrna
Bergama Pergamon
Aksu Perge
Sart Sardis
Demre Myra




Turkey has been called " the cradle of civilizations " and by traveling through this historic land, tourists will discover exactly what is meant by this phrase. The world's first known settlement, a neolithic city at Catalhoyuk, dates back to 6,500 B.C. From the days of Catalhoyuk up to the present , Turkey boasts a rich culture that through the centuries has made a lasting impression on modern civilization. Being the heir to many centuries of cultures makes Turkey a paradise of information and cultural wealth. Sumerians, Hattis, Hittites, Phrygians, Urartians, Lycians, Ionians, Lydians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks and Ottomans have all made important contributions to the history of the area. Ancient sites and ruins scattered throughout the country give sufficient proof of each civilization's unique distinction. Turkey also has a very fascinating recent history. Upon the decline of the Ottoman Empire, a young man named Mustafa Kemal, who was a soldier and a great visionary, took the defeat of World war I and turned into a shining victory by liberating Turkey from all occupying forces. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded the Republic of Turkey on October 29,1923. He led his country towards peace and stability that brought about tremendous economic growth and increasing modernization. Through decades of change and growth, Turkey still boasts growing success, living by Ataturk's motto of "Peace at home, peace in the world".


Turkey's population is about 81 million, 40 % of whom live in the countryside. The major cities are Istanbul, Ankara ( the capital ), Izmir, Adana, Antalya and Bursa.


The Republic of Turkey is based on a secular, democratic, pluralistic and parliamentary system, where human rights are protected by law and social justice. The Grand National assembly is elected by popular vote, and the nation is governed by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Turkey is a founding member of OECD, the Black sea Economic Cooperation Organization, a member of NATO, the European Council, the Islamic Conference association, and an associate member of the European Union. 


Government offices: 8:30-12:30 / 13:30- 17:00 (closed Sat. and Sun., open daily in tourist areas) Banks: 8:30 - 12:00 / 13:30 - 17:00 ( closed Sat. and Sun., open daily in tourist areas ) Shops: 9:30 - 19:00 ( In tourist areas, closing times vary, some close around midnight )


Jan. 1 New Year's Day
Apr. 23 National Independence and Children's Day
May 19 Ataturk's Commemoration and Youth and Sports Day
Aug. 30 Victory Day ( Final rout of invading forces in 1922 )
Oct. 29 Republic Day ( Anniversary of the declaration of the Turkish Republic )

The Turks date back 4,000 years as a people, with ancestral roots extending to Turkic tribes who originated in the vast steppe lands of Central Asia and rode out in successive waves of conquest as their plain began to dry. The Turks established sixteen great empires stretching though many parts of Europe, Asia and North Africa. By the year 1000 AD, most Turks had adopted to Islam religion. 

The following states and empires were founded by the Turks;

  • The Great Hun Empire ( 204 BC - 216 AD )
  • The Western Hun Empire ( 48 - 216 )
  • The European Hun Empire ( 375 - 454 ) * The Akhun Empire ( 420 - 562 )
  • The Gok Turk Empire ( 552 - 743 )
  • The Avar Empire ( 565 - 803 )
  • The Khazar Empire ( 651 - 983 )
  • The Uigur State ( 744 - 1335 )
  • The Karahan State ( 940 - 1040 )
  • The Ghaznavid State ( 963 - 1183 )
  • The Great Seljuk Empire ( 1040- 1157 )
  • The Harzemshah State ( 1157 - 1231 )
  • The Altınordu State ( 1236 - 1502 )
  • The Tamerlane Empire ( 1368 - 1501 )
  • The Babur Empire ( 1526 - 1858 )
  • The Ottoman Empire ( 1299 - 1922 )


It is known that Turks first lived in Central Asia around 2000 B.C. Later, some of them left Central Asia and traveled extensively, establishing many independent states and empires within the vast area of Asia and Europe. Although their expansion was widespread, only the most significant are mentioned below. 

The Great Hun Empire (during the 3rd century B.C.) is generally considered a milestone in Turkish history. During this period, Turks migrated toward the northeast, traveled through Finland, and down to central Europe where they eventually settled. Some groups of Turks traveled to the southwest, settling in Northern India, Afghanistan and Turkistan. By the 6th century A.D., the Gok Turks took power and established an empire extending between the Black Sea and the Indian Ocean. 

Other Empires such as the Avar (6th to 9th centuries A.D.) developed in Central Asia; the Hazar Empire (5th to 10th centuries A.D.) in the Crimea and Volga regions; the First Uygur Empire in Central Asia; the Second Uygur Empire (lasting through the 14th century); and many others subsequently passed from power. 

Around the 10th century A.D., Turks embraced the Islamic religion. After this significant change, the Karahanid Empire (10th to 11th centuries A.D.) of the Central Asia and the Ghaznavid Empire (10th to 12th centuries A.D.) developed in the areas that are today Iran, Afghanistan and Northern India. 

A group of Turks travelling southwest migrated to Anatolia. On 1071 A.D. they fought a crucial war with the Byzantine Empire and settled in Asia Minor (which covers most of modern Turkey). There they established many small feudal states and some empires. It is now known that the region of Anatolia has been inhabited for more than 10,000 years; it has a unique history that has embraced more than twenty cultures and civilizations for which is justifiably deserves recognition as the “Cradle of Civilization”.


It is said that three major types of cuisine exist in the world: French, Chinese and Turkish. Fully justifying its reputation, Turkish cuisine is always a pleasant surprise for the visitor. In addition to being the refined product of centuries of experience, Turkish cuisine has a very pure quality. The variety and simplicity of the recipes and the quality of the ingredients are guarantees of delicious meals. 


The Turkish language belongs to Ural- Altaic group and has an affinity with the Finno-Hungarian languages. Turkish is written in the Latin alphabet and is spoken by least 250 million people around the world. 


Although Turkey is 99 percent Muslim by population, it is secular state that guarantees complete freedom of worship to non-muslims. 


Local Time : GMT + 2 hrs. ( summer ) 

Electricity : 220 volts AC, all over Turkey. The voltage is clearly marked on all hotel outlets. 

Tap Water : Safe to drink in all cities, since it has been chlorinated. 

Weights and measures : Metric system. 

Foreign newspapers : Available in large cities and tourist areas. 

Interpreters - guides : Ministry of Tourism Offices and travel agencies can provide you professional interpreters - guides. Travel agents obliged to provide a guide on all of their tours. 

Doctors and Dentists : Doctors and dentists can be found in Turkey's major hospitals and, in addition, there are certain foreign-operated hospitals in Istanbul.


The national monetary unit is the Turkish Lira (TL ). The coinage is in 1TL, and 5, 10, 25, 50 Kurus. Bank notes are 5, 10, 20, 50 , 100, 200 TL. The exchange rates for foreign currencies are published daily. Traveler's checks can be cashed upon producing identification. The most widely accepted credit cards are American Express, Eurocard, Diner's Club, Visa and Mastercard. Exchange offices in touristic places are generally open until midnight. 

Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Philippines, Korea, Australia, and New Zealand currencies are not convertible in Turkey. 


Turkish post offices are easily recognizable by their yellow " PTT " signs. major post offices are open 08:00 - 24:00 hrs., Monday - Saturday; and 9:00 - 19:00., Sunday. 

Small post offices have the same hours as government offices. 

Fax office : It is possible to use this service for sending or receiving documents from other countries. 

Other PTT services : It is possible to exchange money at some branches of PTT at the currency international exchange rate. International postal orders and traveler's checks also can be exchanged. 

An express postal service ( Acele Posta servisi - APS ) operates from Turkey to 72 other countries for letters, documents, and small packages. 

Stamp collectors will be delighted with the wide range of special stamps available to them. 

Phone calls : The most economic way to telephone in Turkey is from a PTT telephone booth ( found in all towns ). Telephone cards available. 

In Anatolia, the Hittites founded one of the greatest states of the Bronze Age around 1500 B.C. The Hittite Empire was equal in strength and sophistication to ancient Egypt. During the 12th century B.C., the Hittite Empire was seized by the Thracians. Then, neo-Hittites continued to rule the area until 750 B.C. when the Phrygians (750-300 B.C.) took power. 

The Lydians, Lycians, and Carians of southwestern Anatolia also provided important contributions to Anatolian culture and civilization during the 6th century B.C. Alexander the Great brought the Hellenistic Age to Anatolia in 334 B.C. Next the Romans established a stronghold in “Asia Minor”. The Byzantine era in Anatolia began to shrink with the arrival of the Turks to the region in the 11th century A.D. 

The Ottomans built the largest empire in recent history within a short time period. After the conquest of Istanbul in 1453, the empire spread to Vienna in the west, Crimea in the north, the Arabian Gulf in the southeast, and all of northern Africa and Sudan; in total covering an area of 8 million square miles. Under the rule of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566), the empire reached its zenith. The Aegean, the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean became known as Ottoman lakes.The 18th century was the turning point of Ottoman power. The weakening of the empire continued until World War I, when Ottoman armies fought on several fronts throughout the far- reaching borders of the empire, but eventually lost. Anatolia was divided and occupied by allied forces, and the ear of the Ottoman Empire was officially over. 

Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk), an Army general, led the nation in its War of Independence (1919-1922). At the time there was no army, no arms or ammunition, no government or treasury. Ataturk established an army with insufficient supplies and a government based on national sovereignty. After many miraculous victories, the occupying allied forces were pushed out of the country, and today’s Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923. After the peace, the young Republic consolidated all it means for economic development and, by its policy of peace succeeded in remaining out of World War II.



Glorious İstanbul, former capital of the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, fascinates travellers with its awe-inspiring mosques and ancient monuments, its colourful history and natural beauty. Perched like a sapphire on a tiara straddling the Bosphorus between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, the former Constantinople is the only city to span two continents. 

In the heart of the old city, step into the world of the Ottoman sultans at the Grand Topkapı Palace. Marvel at the iconic Hagia Sophia, first built as an Orthodox Basilica by Byzantine emperor Justinian in 537. Witness the Islamic call to prayer at the striking Blue Mosque commissioned by Sultan Ahmet in 1609. Bargain for souvenirs at the labyrinth of shops in the Grand Bazaar and inhale the pungent scents of cumin and cloves in the spice market. Let the magic continue with a sunset cruise on the Bosphorus. Travel northwest to explore Edirne and its lively bazaar and beautiful mosques, including the 16th-century Selimiye Camii whose four minarets are reputed to be the highest in the world. Travel south to the ancient spas and gardens of Bursa, that served as capital to the Ottoman Empire in 1326.


Surrounded by mountains and rich in wildlife, the region flanking the Aegean Sea begins in Thracian (European) Turkey along the Gallipoli Peninsula, site of the 1915 World War I Gallipoli battle that claimed the lives of 500,000 soldiers. Cross the Dardanelles Strait to visit the excavation of the ancient city of Troy. 

Explore the legends, gods and achievements of Ancient Greece and marvel at Pergamum. Beyond its famous library and temples to Trajan and Demeter is Asklepion, the world’s first hospital site named after Asclepios, the God of healing. Within an hour drive from Izmir, Turkey’s third largest city and a shipping center, are the ruins of Ionian cities including the great Hellenistic city of Ephesus. Walk the white marble streets of this ancient masterpiece and be swept away by its great Celsus Library, Temple of Diana and the colossal theater where St. Paul preached. Nearby, the House of Virgin Mary is believed to be the last home of Mary, mother of Jesus. Moving on to the coastal resort town of Bodrum, you’ll be charmed by its waterfront medieval Crusader castle, white-washed houses and yachting center. Marvel at the final resting place for the Lydia kings of Caunus, their tombs cut into the rock cliffs. Or take a day tour to Denizli to walk through the stadium, gymnasium and theater ruins of Laodicea. 

Within an hour drive from Izmir, Turkey’s third largest city and a shipping center, are the ruins of Ionian cities including the great Hellenistic city of Ephesus. Walk the white marble streets of this ancient masterpiece and be swept away by its great Celsus Library, Temple of Diana and the colossal theater where St. Paul preached. Nearby, the House of Virgin Mary is believed to be the last home of Mary, mother of Jesus. 

Moving on to the coastal resort town of Bodrum, you’ll be charmed by its waterfront medieval Crusader castle, white-washed houses and yachting center. Marvel at the final resting place for the Lydia kings of Caunus, their tombs cut into the rock cliffs. Or take a day tour to Denizli to walk through the stadium, gymnasium and theater ruins of Laodicea. 



Ankara is the starting point for exploring the magical region of Central Anatolia. Travel to Konya, home to sufism, the mystical sect of Islam, and the whirling dervishes. Here, you’ll find exceptionally beautiful Seljuk buildings dating from the 12th and 13th century when Konya was recognized as the center for Muslim art and learning. Dominating the skyline are the blue-green dome and minarets of Mevlana Monastery, where the sect’s founder Mevlana was buried in 1273.

Step into another world when you travel through the extraordinary volcanic “fairy chimneys” and the landscapes of Cappadocia. Marvel at the painted underground churches dating to the 8th century carved into the volcanic rock. Goreme valley is estimated to have up to 5,000 man-made cave dwellings. Explore the underground cities of Kaymakli or Derinkuyu, huge refuges carved by earl Christians to hide out from persecutors.

Pamukkale, literally “the Cotton Castle,” bedazzles with its natural wonders – cascading cliffs of white limestone, layers of stalactities and natural swimming pool formed by thousands of years of calcium and mineral deposits. Located next to the ruins of the ancient Greco-Roman city and necropolis of Hieropolis.Then move on to explore the theatre and fine stadium ruins of Aphrodisias, the ancient city dedicated to Aphrodite, the goddess of love.


Along the northeast coast of the Black Sea, the earliest civilizations date back more than 9,000 years, the fabled city of Trabzon. Ruled by the Romans, the Goths, the Greeks, the Persians, the Assyrians, the Ottomans and home to the last of the Byzantiums after the fall of Constantinople, Trabzon grew prosperous with passing camel caravans trading silk and spices. Explore its medieval main square and its centuries-old churches and walled citadels. Examine the magnificent 13th-century frescoes at the Hagia Sophia monastery. Those interested in more recent history can visit Ataturk’s summer residence in the hills, Ataturk Kosku. From Macka, in the Eastern Black Sea Mountain Range, explore Altindere National Park, the spectacular setting of the impressive white-walled Sumela Monastery perched on a steep cliff almost 1312 meters above the ground.


The East Anatolia region is located in the easternmost part of Turkey offers less traveled but always intriguing. At 2,000 meters high, the plateau city of Erzurum harbors a 5th-century citadel and the brilliant turquoise tile minarets of Yakutiye Medrese, built in 1310.

Travellers venture to Kars (translated Snow) mentioned in the novel “Kar” written by Orhan Pamuk a Turkish novelist, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.Travellers can view the black basalt Armenian Church of the Apostles, built in 932, and are further amazed by neighboring Ani; a 10th-century Armenian city of beautiful churches. Continue to Agri (Mount Ararat), the 5137 meters-high montain top thought to be where Noah’s Ark came to rest after the 40 days of rain.

Catch your breath on a boat tour around the immense volcanic 1882 meters-high Lake Van. Disembark on Akdamar Island to view the richly carved Old Testament scenes in the 10th-century Armenian Church of the Holy Cross, designated a sacred pilgrimage site.

In the town of Van, be sure to visit neighboring Hosap Castle, the best preserved and most picturesque castle in Turkey.


You’re sure to be fascinated by the historic sites of Southeast Anatolia, thought to be the birthplace of Biblical Abraham, Dominating the northern Mesopotamian plain is the ancient trade city of Diyarbakir. Wonder its narrow winding streets and note the Great Mosque, modeled after the great Ummayad Mosque in Damascus, and the Mosque of the Prophet with its striped minaret, and the beautiful Palace Gate.

As its name translates, the architecture and cultural heritage found in Sanliurfa is truly “glorious”. Reflect at the legendary Pool of Abraham, believed to have been created to extinguish the funeral pyre set by Assrian King Nimrod to burn Abraham. Admire the 12th- century Great Mosque erected by the Seljuks.

Don’t miss the drive up to 2185 meters summit of Mount Nemrut to view the grandiose funeral monument to 1st- century King Antiochus. At Nemrut Mountain, there are colossal Stone heads, exemplary of the Hittites and Oriental practice of enthroning images of gods on mountain tops.


Known as the Turkish Riviera or the Turquoise Coast, the Antalya region of Turkey attracts travellers to its beautiful coastline and sparkling clear Mediterranean sea. Basking in more than 300 days of sunshine average annually, visitors come to sunbathe, yacht, bicycle and discover historical sites tucked among the trees. 

Learn the truth behind the legend of Santa Claus in ancient Myra at the Church of St. Nicolas. Visit the ancient theaters and stadiums and colonnades of the ruined cities of Aspendos and Perge, which reached its zenith under Alexander the Great, Catch up on your Roman history at the Adana Regional Museum of Roman Ruins and marvel at the nearby Tas Kopru, the mighty stone bridge built by Hadrian. 

Stroll in the footsteps of St. Paul at his birthplace in Tarsus. Here is where Marc Antony is said to have summoned Cleopatra to chastise her for supporting his rival Cassius. Follow the saga of the tragic lovers to Side, another of their secret meeting places. With its ancient harbor, extensive Roman baths and museum showcasing a fine archaeological collection, the pretty resort town is a wonderful place to relax and unwind. Share your stories on board your Turkish gulet while cruising along the Turquoise Coast. 



Although Turkey is situated in a geographical location where climatic conditions are quite temperate, the diverse nature of the landscape, and the existence in particular of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts, result in significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the other. While the coastal regions enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolia plateau experiences hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall. 

Because of Turkey's geographical conditions, one can not speak about a general overall climate. In Istanbul and around the sea of Marmara (Marmara region) the climate is moderate (winter 4 deg.C and summer 27 deg.C); in winter the temperature can drop below zero. In Western Anatolia (Aegean region) there is a mild Mediterranean climate with average temperatures of 9 deg.C in winter and 29 deg.C in summer. On the southern coast of Anatolia (Mediterranean region) the same climate can be found. The climate of the

Anatolian Plateau (Central Anatolian region) is a steppe climate (there is a great temperature difference between day and night). Rainfall is low and there is more snow. The average temperature is 23 deg.C in summer and -2 deg.C in winter. The climate in the Black Sea area (Black Sea region) is wet, warm and humid (summer 23 deg.C, winter 7 deg.C). In Eastern Anatolia and South-Eastern Anatolia there is a long hard winter, where year after year snow lies on the ground from November until the end of April (the average temperature in winter is -13 deg.C and in summer 17 deg.C). 

Season and Climate in Turkey Turkey is a year-round destination depending on your itinerary. Although the tourist "high season" (with associated higher rates) is from mid-June through mid-September, Spring and Fall are the best seasons to travel. The sun is warm and skies are generally clear. You can expect mild to warm temperatures and some rain during this time.


A Turkish bath (Turkish: Hamam) is the Turkish variant of a steam bath, sauna or Russian Bath, distinguished by a focus on water, as opposed to ambient steam.

In Western Europe, the Turkish bath as a method of cleansing the body and relaxation was particularly popular during the Victorian era. The process involved in taking a Turkish bath is similar to that of a sauna, but is more closely related to ancient Greek and ancient Roman bathing practices.

A person taking a Turkish bath first relaxes in a room (known as the warm room) that is heated by a continuous flow of hot, dry air allowing the bather to perspire freely. Bathers may then move to an even hotter room (known as the hot room) before splashing themselves with cold water. After performing a full body wash and receiving a massage, bathers finally retire to the cooling-room for a period of relaxation.



Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including that of western Europe. The Ottomans fused various culinary traditions of their realm with influences from Middle Eastern cuisines, along with traditional Turkic elements from Central Asia (such as yogurt), creating a vast array of specialities- many with strong regional associations.



Turkish tea, called çay, a form of black tea, is produced on the eastern Black Sea coast, which has a mild climate with high precipitation and fertile soil. Turkish tea is typically prepared using two stacked kettles (çaydanlık) especially designed for tea preparation. Water is brought to a boil in the larger lower kettle and then some of the water is used to fill the smaller kettle on top and steep several spoons of loose tea leaves, producing a very strong tea. When served, the remaining water is used to dilute the tea on an individual basis, giving each consumer the choice between strong (Turkish: koyu; literally “dark”) or weak (Turkish: açık; literally “light”).

Tea is drunk from small glasses to enjoy it hot in addition to showing its colour, with lumps of beet sugar. To a lesser extent than in other Muslim countries, tea replaces both alcohol and coffee as the social beverage. Within Turkey, the tea is usually known as Rize tea. Virtually all of the tea is produced in the Rize province, a Turkish province on the Black Sea coast.

In 2004 Turkey produced 205,500 tonnes of tea (6.4% of the world’s total tea production), which made it one of the largest tea markets in the world. Furthermore, in 2004, Turkey had the highest per capita tea consumption in the world, at 2.5 kg per person–followed by the United Kingdom (2.1 kg per person).


Turkish coffee is prepared by boiling finely powdered roast coffee beans in a pot (cezve), possibly with sugar, and serving it into a cup, where the dregs settle. The name describes the method of preparation, not the raw material; there is no special Turkish variety of the coffee bean. It is common throughout the Middle East, North Africa, Caucasus, and the Balkans, and in their expatriate communities and restaurants in the rest of the world.

Coffeehouse culture is highly developed in the former Ottoman world, and this is the dominant style of preparation.


Turkish delight or Lokum is a family of confections based on a gel of starch and sugar. Premium varieties consist largely of chopped dates, pistachios and hazelnuts or walnuts bound by the gel; the cheapest are mostly gel, generally flavored with rosewater, mastic, or lemon. The confection is often packaged and eaten in small cubes dusted with icing sugar to prevent clinging. Other common types include such flavors as cinnamon and mint. In the production process, soapwort may be used as an emulsifying additive.

Originally, honey and molasses were its sweeteners, and water and flour were the binding agents, with rosewater, lemon peel and bitter orange as the most common flavors (red, yellow and green). Lokum was introduced to Western Europe in the 19th century. An unknown Briton reputedly became very fond of the delicacy during his travels to Istanbul and purchased cases of it, to be shipped back to Britain under the name Turkish delight. It became a major delicacy in Britain and throughout Continental Europe for the high class society. During this time, it became a practice among upper class socialites to exchange pieces of Turkish delight wrapped in silk handkerchiefs as presents.


In Turkey, wherever you look, you’ll meet plenty of eyes looking at you. Glass evil eye beads. It is common in the Turkish culture to give a gift of a blue nazar Boncugu (nazar boncuk) or the evil eye bead as it is more widely known. People hang a small evil eye amulet from the rear view mirror of their car, keep several small evil eye beads or evil eye charms on hand to give to guests, hang an evil eye near their door in the home or office. Glass evil eyes are worn, in the form of jewelry; evil eye bracelet, evil eye necklace, evil eye anklet, gold or silver evil eye charms and evil eye pendant, evil eye earring – ring and blue evil eye talisman... Here it is a real evil eye bead paradise